## Monday, October 12, 2009

### Hyperbinary numbers

Update: The proof is over here.

I've been following along the a discussion on The Math Less Travelled about hyperbinary numbers (here, here and here). I'm posting this here because it's a bit too big to fit in the margins of the other blog (although I have found no remarkable proof). Since I have very little time to work on this (and have already given myself a few nights with insufficient sleep!) I thought I'd do a brain-dump of what I did in case someone else can finish it. Apologies for the awful formatting, I don't post much maths so have no nice styles for it and no time to find them.

#### Quick summary

h(n) is the number of ways of writing n as a sum of powers of 2 where each power of 2 can only occur 0, 1 or 2 times. See the articles for more details but the key facts are (I'll refer to them by these numbers):

1. h(2n) = h(n) + h(n - 1)
2. h(2n + 1) = h(n)

From those you can get several relationships, like h(k * 2^n - 1) = h(k-1). Other interesting stuff is in those posts. The main question is how to find the inverse of h(n). That is, given k, what values of n have h(n) = k. It turns out that each even solution to that leads to an infinite number of odd solutions and all odd solutions can be traced back to an even solution. So the question then is what are the even solutions - the "primary occurrences"? My contribution so far has been to notice that there seem to be φ(k) even solutions for a given k although I am still stumped on how to prove that.

Another useful things is that h(2n + 1) = h(n) means that all the odd positions are just repeats of earlier values. Applying fact 1 to the right hand side of fact 2 gets you h(2n) = h(2n + 1) + h(2n - 1). So all the even positions are just the sum of the values that come immediately before and after.

Finally, h(2^n - 1) = 1 and h(2^n) = n + 1 and from that you can get h(2^n + 1) = n

#### New stuff

The last bits got me thinking about h(2^n + k). It's fairly easy to figure that out for more and more values of k. For h(2^n + 2) just apply fact 1 to get that as the sum of 2 things we already know:

h(2^n + 2) = h(2^(n-1) + 1) + h(2^(n-1)) = (n-1) + (n-1) + 1 # note this line for discussion below. = 2n - 1.
Looking at the table of values primary occurrences (here) you can see that all of the odd entries do indeed have 2^n + 2. In fact after a bit, it's the lowest value for each odd entry.

What about 1? 2*1 - 1 = 1 but if n = 1 the line commented above is not valid because h(2^n + 1) = n is only valid for n > 1.

To get a bit further, consider h(2n) = h(2n + 1) + h(2n - 1) from above. Moving things around a little that becomes h(2n + 1) = h(2n) - h(2n - 1). So we can get the next odd entry by subtracting the previous odd entry from the previous even entry. So h(2^n + 3) = n - 1. Since 2^n + 3 is odd this doesn't tell us anything about primary occurrences but it's still useful as all odd entries are duplicated later on.

Now we can get h(2^n + 4) = h(2^(n-1) + 2) + h(2^(n-1) + 1) and again we know what they are = (2n - 1) + n = 3n - 1. And low and behold, all the entries (except 2) in the primary occurrences table of the form 3n - 1, include have 2^n + 4 (5 -> 12, 8 -> 20, 11 -> 36, ...). What about 2? 2 = 3*1 -1 but if n=1 then the relation above breaks because the 2n - 1 rule is only valid for n > 1.

Continuing on in the same vein you get the first 100:

With the 2^n + k only being valid for n such that 2^n > k.

Obviously calculating these by hand gets a bit boring. To write some code to do it I had to play with f(n, m) = h(2^n + m) and it breaks down into 2 cases for m even and odd.

For the odd case, let m = 2k + 1. So

f(n, m) = h(2^n + m) = h(2^n + 2k + 1) = h(2n + 1) = h(2^n + 2k) - h(2^n + 2k - 1)

For the even case, let m = 2k. So

f(n, m) = h(2^n + m) = h(2^n + 2k) = h(2(2^(n-1) + k)) = h(2^(n-1) + k) + h(2^(n-1) + k -1) (applying fact 1) = h(2^(n-1) + m/2) + h(2^(n-1) + m/2 -1) = f(n - 1, m/2) + f(n -1, m/2 - 1)

Turning that into python and adding a couple of base cases gives the following code (it tries to also cope with 2^n - m but there's a bug somewhere).

You can run it as ./hyperbinary.py 0 100 or to get the first 50 even entries. Looking at the output it seems that h(2^n + m) = h(m) * n + c. I haven't proved it formally but it should be easy enough, just show that the coefficient of n obeys the fact 1 and fact 2. I didn't find a good relation between m or h(m) and the c above (the best I can spot is that int(c/h(m)) is always log_2(m) and when m is 2^k c=k*h(m) + 1). Nor did I relate any of this to φ although at least now there appears to be some modulo arithmetic going on.

Brent said...

Nice! I've just proved the fact that h(2^n + m) = h(m)n + c (where c is a constant depending only on m) by induction on m.

Fergal said...

I played around some more last night and found that you can get pretty much the same type of results for h(p*2^n + m). I don't have the paper in front of me now but it was something like

h(p*2^n + m) = h(m) * [h(p) + n*h(p-1)] + C*h(p-1)

There may have been further terms. So these identities give you a way write a number (x) out as a sequence of binary digits and then split that into 2 parts (p on the left and m on the right) so that x=p*2^n + m and you can get h(x) in terms of h of the parts of x. They also allow you to insert runs of 0s into the middle of numbers. Still not sure if it's useful...